Causes of rubella

German Measles (Rubella): Causes, Symptoms, and Treatment

German measles, also known as rubella, is a viral infection that causes a red rash on the body. Aside from the rash, people with German measles usually have a fever and swollen lymph nodes. The.. The rubella virus can be spread in different ways, including: direct contact, such as kissing an infected person. through the air, such as when an infected person: coughs. sneezes. talks. Symptoms appear between 14 and 21 days after a person has been infected

Causes of rubella - Canada

Causes of Rubella. Rubella is caused by a virus. It used to be called German measles, though it's not caused by the same virus that causes measles. Transmission of Rubella Rubella spreads through direct contact with discharge from the nose and throat. The rubivirus that causes rubella can also be spread from a pregnant mother to her fetus through the bloodstream. What is the likelihood that my baby will get congenital rubella syndrome Rubella is an acute, contagious viral infection. While rubella virus infection usually causes a mild fever and rash in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or infants with congenital malformations, known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

Rubella (German Measles): Symptoms, Causes, Treatmen

Once infected, a person develops lifelong immunity to rubella. Fetal infection occurs when the virus enters the placenta from the maternal bloodstream. Defects of the eye, heart, brain, and large arteries are most common and, together, are referred to as congenital rubella syndrome Rubella in pregnancy. Rubella is very rare in pregnancy. But if you get it when you're pregnant, rubella could harm your baby. It can cause: loss of the baby (miscarriage) serious problems after the baby is born - such as problems with their sight, hearing, heart, or brain; The risk is highest if you get rubella early in pregnancy Rubella spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Also, if a woman is infected with rubella while she is pregnant, she can pass it to her developing baby and cause serious harm. See Pregnancy and Rubella page to learn more Rubella (German measles) is an infectious condition caused by a virus. It isn't usually a serious infection for adults or children, but it can severely affect an unborn baby if a mother develops a rubella infection during the first 8 to 10 weeks of pregnancy. A rubella infection can cause multiple birth defects, including congenital heart disease In children, rubella is usually mild, with few noticeable symptoms. For children who do have symptoms, a red rash is typically the first sign. The rash generally first appears on the face and then spreads to the rest of the body, and lasts about three days. Other symptoms that may occur 1 to 5 days.

Rubella can cause congenital rubella syndrome in the newborn, this being the most severe sequela of rubella. The syndrome (CRS) follows intrauterine infection by the rubella virus and comprises cardiac, cerebral, ophthalmic and auditory defects. It may also cause prematurity, low birth weight, and neonatal thrombocytopenia, anemia and hepatitis Rubella (German measles) is an infectious disease that is caused by a virus. It can cause a high temperature (fever) of 38ºC (100.4ºF) or over, and a distinctive red-pink rash. In most cases, rubella is a mild condition, but it can be serious in pregnant women as it can harm the unborn baby Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) Description: Rubella is an infection caused by a virus. Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) is an important cause of severe birth defects. When a woman is infected with the rubella virus early in pregnancy, she has a 90% chance of passing the virus on to her fetus Rubella is caused by a virus. It is spread in the same way as any viral cold - by tiny droplets produced from the nose and mouth. It's not as contagious as a cold or the measles, but it has a long incubation period (the time between getting infected with the virus and getting sick) that varies from 12 to 23 days

Congenital Rubella Symptoms & Causes Boston Children's

Rubella - WH

Rubella (German measles) is a viral illness that causes a skin rash and joint pain. A rubella infection is mild for most people, but can cause death or birth defects in an unborn baby. The rubella vaccine is available in combined vaccines that also contain vaccines against other serious and potentially fatal diseases Rubella virus (also called German Measles) causes skin rash, fever, swollen glands, and joint pain. Becoming infected with rubella during pregnancy can result in a miscarriage or serious birth defects. The rubella virus vaccine is used to help prevent this disease in adults and children who are at least 12 months old Congenital rubella refers to the group of birth defects that occur in an infant whose mother is infected with the virus that causes German measles (rubella) during pregnancy. Congenital rubella occurs when the rubella virus in the mother affects the developing baby in the first 3 months of pregnancy. After the fourth month, if the mother has a rubella infection, it is less likely to harm the. Rubella is caused by a virus from the genus Rubivirus. Its symptoms include low-grade fever, respiratory problems, and most notably a rash of pink or light red spots that typically begins on the face and spreads downward. The rash occurs about two to three weeks after exposure to the virus

Rubella. Print. Sections. Products and services. Free E-newsletter Subscribe to Housecall. Our general interest e-newsletter keeps you up to date on a wide variety of health topics. Sign up now. Rubella. Rubella results in a fine, pink rash that appears on the face, the trunk (shown in image), and then the arms and legs Rubella is caused by a virus that is spread through the air or by close contact. A person with rubella may spread the disease to others from 1 week before the rash begins, until 1 to 2 weeks after the rash disappears. Because the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is given to most children, rubella is much less common now

It can cause a series of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS). CRS can include hearing and visual impairments, heart problems, brain damage, growth problems and swelling in the brain, liver and lungs Congenital rubella is a viral infection acquired from the mother during pregnancy. Signs are multiple congenital anomalies that can result in fetal death. Diagnosis is by serology and viral culture. There is no specific treatment. Prevention is by routine vaccination. (See also Rubella and Overview. Measles is a viral disease that causes uncomfortable symptoms and can lead to life-threatening or life-changing complications. The CDC state that symptoms usually appear 7-14 days after exposure Congenital rubella syndrome occurs when a pregnant woman contracts the rubella virus, and it passes through the placenta to the unborn child. This can trigger a loss of pregnancy or stillbirth, or..

Cause of German measles Infection with the rubella virus causes rubella, or German measles. The infection spreads via fluid infected with the virus (for example, through coughing, sneezing, or sharing drinks or food with an infected person). Other rubella (german measles) symptoms and sign The name rubella is derived from a Latin term meaning little red. Rubella is generally a benign communicable exanthematous disease. It is caused by rubella virus, which is a member of the Rubivirus genus of the family Togaviridae. Nearly one half of individuals infected with this virus are asymptomatic Rubella Rubella, Congenital Rubella syndrome, Congenital Mumps Immunization Epidemiologic surveillance ABSTRACT Measles and rubella remain important causes of vaccine-preventable disease and death in the European Region of WHO. The Strategic plan for measles and congenital rubella infection in the WHO European Region identifies key strategies t Rubella immunisation programmes have eliminated endemic spread of the virus in the UK and the Americas; most cases are imported or associated with imported infections. Definition This topic focuses on postnatal rubella (German or 3-day measles), a mild, self-limiting, systemic infection caused by rubella virus In Russia, for instance, congenital rubella syndrome causes 15% of all birth defects. Mortality/Morbidity. Infection in healthy children or young adults is generally self-limited and without sequelae. The most common complications are arthropathies of the fingers, wrists, and knees that can persist for a year or more..

Rubella disease Britannic

Rubella, also called German measles or 3-day measles, isn't a problem for most people.It causes a mild fever and rash that go away in a few days. Most kids get vaccinated for it with the MMR. The importance of congenital rubella infection was recognized in the United States and elsewhere in 1941, after the ophthalmologist Norman Gregg linked epidemic congenital cataracts in Australia to intrauterine rubella [].Landmark articles by Greenberg et al. [] in the United States, Manson et al. [] in the United Kingdom, and Lundstrom in Sweden [] established congenital rubella as a. Rubella (German measles) is a worldwide, mild, exanthematous and highly infectious viral disease of children in unvaccinated populations. Its prominence and the rational for immunising against rubella is the high risk of congenital malformations associated with rubella infection during pregnancy, something first observed by Dr Norman McAlister Gregg during the rubella epidemic in Australia. In Finland, measles, mumps, and rubella are notifiable diseases. During the MMR (measles, mumps, rubella) vaccination program, started in 1982, an intensified follow-up of measles, mumps, and rubella was done [].From 1987, every suspected measles, mumps, or rubella case, including those in unvaccinated persons, had to be confirmed by specific virologic laboratory tests before notification

Congenital rubella syndrome is one of the leading causes of birth defects, but is vaccine preventable. Pregnant women infected with rubella infection are at risk of foetal death or congenital. INTRODUCTION. Two German clinicians, De Bergen and Orlow, are credited with the first description of rubella in the 1750s; the subsequent attention it received in the German literature led to its appellation German measles [].Initially, rubella was thought to be a variant related to measles or scarlet fever and was called the Third Exanthematous Disease of Childhood or the three day measles In less than 1 of every 1,000 cases, measles produces encephalitis (brain infection), with an immediate risk of seizures, coma and death, and a long-term risk of mental retardation or epilepsy. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is an extraordinarily rare chronic form of measles encephalitis that causes brain damage Rubella is a leading cause of vaccine-preventable birth defects. Although rubella virus infection usually causes a mild febrile rash illness in children and adults, infection during pregnancy, especially during the first trimester, can result in miscarriage, fetal death, stillbirth, or a constellation of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome (CRS)

Causes of a nationwide rubella outbreak in Japan, 2012-2013. Causes of a nationwide rubella outbreak in Japan, 2012-2013. Causes of a nationwide rubella outbreak in Japan, 2012-2013 J Infect. 2014 Jan;68(1):99-101. doi: 10.1016/j.jinf.2013.09.002. Epub 2013 Sep 9.. Rubella, also known as German measles or three-day measles, is an infection caused by the rubella virus. This disease is often mild with half of people not realizing that they are infected. A rash may start around two weeks after exposure and last for three days. It usually starts on the face and spreads to the rest of the body. The rash is sometimes itchy and is not as bright as that of measles Recently acquired rubella is commonly confirmed by RV-specific IgM antibody detection in the serum. However, rubella primary infection is not always the only cause of IgM positivity. Other possible causes of rubella IgM positivity may include IgM persistence following vaccination or naturally acquired infection or even re-infection

Rubella (german measles) - NH

ALF by rubella was probably the main cause of death. In conclusion, it is important to consider that the immunosuppressed patient is at risk of contracting a live virus vaccine infection and to limit contact with rubella-vaccinated persons during the first month, which is the period of virus replication Diagnosis. The rubella rash can look like many other viral rashes. So doctors usually confirm rubella with the help of laboratory tests. You may have a virus culture or a blood test, which can detect the presence of different types of rubella antibodies in your blood Rubella is a viral infection. It causes a mild illness in children and slightly more severe illness in adults. If a woman is infected with the disease while pregnant, her unborn baby can be born with severe birth defects. Rubella can be prevented by the combination vaccine for measles, mumps, and rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3-day measles — is an infection that mostly affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by the rubella virus (not the same virus that causes measles). Rubella spreads when people breathe in virus-infected fluid, such as the droplets sprayed into.

Rubella Transmission CD

German measles (rubella) is an infection caused by a virus. Rubella infection in pregnant women is dangerous and can cause congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in the baby. Rubella infection was once an important cause of congenital malformations and mental retardation in newborn babies and children in BC Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in infants whose mother contract rubella. CRS used to be a major cause of congenital abnormalities, including deafness, before widespread vaccination began. There is no specific treatment for rubella Rubella is a mild febrile rash illness caused by rubella virus. It is transmitted from person to person via droplets (the virus is present in throat secretions). It affects mainly, but not only, children and when pregnant women are infected, it may result in malformation of the foetus. Humans are the only reservoir of infection A rubella infection can cause miscarriage, preterm birth, or stillbirth, as well as a variety of birth defects, but it depends on how far along you are when you contract the virus. The risks are highest during the early stages of a baby's development and they go down as pregnancy progresses Women with rubella experience arthritis or joint pain in about 70 percent of cases, but it is usually temporary. Arthritis in men and children with rubella is rare. Also, in rare cases, rubella can lead to brain infections and bleeding and bruising problems. Encephalitis occurs in one of every 6,000 rubella cases, mostly in adults

Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) can occur in children whose mothers contract the rubella virus, sometimes called German measles, during pregnancy.Depending on the gestational period when the mother contracts rubella, an infant born with CRS may be unaffected by the virus or it may have severe developmental defects Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is a disease caused by a virus. The infection is usually mild with fever and rash, but if a pregnant woman gets infected, the virus can cause serious birth defects. The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine is the best way to help protect against rubella Rubella is a preventable disease that is now rare in the UK thanks to the introduction of the MMR vaccine. Find out more about the MMR vaccination. Rubella remains one of the main causes of deafblindness in many developing countries The most severe complications of measles include blindness, encephalitis (an infection that causes brain swelling), severe diarrhea, and pneumonia, among others. Worldwide, an estimated 140,000 people died from measles in 2018. Rubella is usually mild when experienced in childhood and adolescence, but it can often lead to serious and even fatal.

Congenital heart disease - Causes - NH

  1. g of infection is important in regards to the severity of neonatal illness. Most people develop immunity to rubella (if they are not.
  2. Congenital rubella infection (CRI) -CRI is the broader term, encompassing the full spectrum of outcomes from intrauterine rubella infection, ranging from miscarriage or stillbirth, to combinations of birth defects (ie, congenital rubella syndrome), to asymptomatic infection
  3. Rubella (German measles) in pregnancy What is rubella? Rubella, commonly known as German measles, is an infection that affects the skin and lymph nodes. It is caused by a virus. Rubella is serious in pregnant women because of the effect it can have on an unborn child

Rubella Signs and Symptoms CD

Video: Rubella - Wikipedi

Rubella Virus

Causes of rubella - HSE

WHO Rubella and Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS

  1. Rubella is an infection that causes a rash. According to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, most people who contract rubella experience mild symptoms. But the disease wreaked havoc as.
  2. Rubella, or German measles, is an infectious disease that is caused by the rubella virus. Since the introduction of the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, it is a relatively rare condition...
  3. Rubella is a viral illness that causes a mild fever and a skin rash. Rubella is spread through contact with fluid from the nose and throat. It starts with a low fever, runny nose, and diarrhea. Then a rash appears on the face, and spreads down the body. A child is most contagious when the rash is appearing..
  4. Rubella can cause fever, sore throat, and a distinctive red rash on the face and body. In pregnant women, rubella infection may lead to more serious consequences, including a group of birth defects known as congenital rubella syndrome
  5. Rubella is a highly contagious viral disease, spread through contact with discharges from the nose and throat of an infected person. Although rubella causes only mild symptoms of low fever, swollen glands, joint pain, and a fine red rash in most children and adults, it can have severe complications for women in their first trimester of pregnancy..
  6. The Problem The Problem Measles is one of the most contagious diseases ever known and is an important cause of death and disability among young children worldwide. Rubella can cause severe birth defects. Measles is a highly contagious virus, spread by contact with an infected person through coughing and sneezing. When one person has measles, [
  7. In the United States, it is available only in combination formulations, such as measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) and measles-mumps-rubella-varicella (MMRV) vaccines. MMRV vaccine is licensed for children aged 12 months through 12 years and may be used in place of MMR vaccine if vaccination for measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella is needed

The infectious causes of morbilliform rash and fever in childhood are varied and include measles virus, rubella virus, group A streptococci (GAS)—the cause of scarlet fever, parvovirus B19, non-polio enteroviruses, adenoviruses, and human herpesvirus type 6 (HHV6). 1 Laboratory investigation is therefore necessary for accurate diagnosis congenital rubella syndrome: long term: high: Maternal infection in pregnancy, particularly early in gestation, may cause spontaneous abortion, fetal death, or a wide spectrum of anatomical and laboratory anomalies. Women who acquire rubella during pregnancy should be managed in consultation with experts in fetal-maternal medicine and. Rubella reported cases Last update: 15-Oct-2020 (data received as of 12-Oct-20). Next update End 2020. Click to download the spreadsheet of these dat

The virus causes CRS (Congenital Rubella Syndrome) causing birth defects. CRS can cause a variety of birth defects and can lead to miscarriage or stillbirth. C. The distribution of this disease. Worldwide. Now rubella is rare in locations where vaccination is standard practice. Countries with standard rubella vaccination are shown in blue color It can also cause other serious complications. Rubella (German measles). Rubella is an infection from a virus. It causes mild fever and rash in infants and children. Pregnant women who get rubella have an increased chance of having babies with birth defects Rubella is a contagious viral disease, which occurs most often in children. The virus is transmitted via the respiratory route, and symptoms usually appear 2-3 weeks after exposure. In children, the disease is usually mild, with low fever, nausea and a transient rash. Adults may develop arthritis and painful joints. Infection during early pregnancy may cause fetal death or congenital rubella. The Measles & Rubella Initiative is committed to ensuring that no child dies from measles or is born with congenital rubella syndrome. We help countries to plan, fund and measure efforts to stop measles and rubella for good What is rubella? Rubella, also called German measles, is a viral illness that is spread from person to person by breathing in droplets of respiratory secretions exhaled by an infected person. It also may be spread by touching the nose or mouth after a person's hands have been in contact with secretions (such as saliva) of an infected person

Morbidity in rubella is generally mild, and neurological complications are rare, varying from 1:3000-1:24000. Encephalitis is a rare complication of viral infections An infection with the rubella virus is the cause of rubella. This virus usually results in mild illness, but it can pose a serious threat to a developing fetus if the mother contracts it during pregnancy. Today, there is a vaccine that can help prevent infection with the rubella virus

Rubella, sometimes called German measles, is a serious disease that used to be common in the United States. Thanks to the vaccine, rubella was declared eliminated from the United States in 2004 — meaning it's no longer constantly present in this country. But, each year, a few Americans who live or travel outside of the country report getting sick from rubella Rubella is a viral infection characterized by fever, headache, swollen lymph nodes, aching joints, and a distinctive red rash. Although it is sometimes called German measles or three-day measles, it is not caused by the same virus that causes measles. Rubella is generally mild in children and more severe but not life-threatening in adults In rare cases, rubella can cause serious problems, including encephalitis (swelling of the brain). Rubella is most dangerous for a pregnant woman's unborn baby. Infection during pregnancy can cause miscarriage, or birth defects like deafness, blindness, intellectual disability, and heart defects If a pregnant woman who is not immune to rubella is infected before the 21st week of pregnancy, the baby may develop congenital rubella syndrome (CRS), which can cause serious health problems, including stillbirth, miscarriage, premature delivery, deafness, mental retardation, bone changes, and liver and spleen damage

Rubella - Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diagnosis

Rubella is a mild yet highly contagious disease that can cause crippling birth defects or the death of the unborn child of an infected pregnant woman. When the rubella virus affects a pregnant women in her first trimester it causes multiple anomalies in the growing foetus like deafness, blindness, cataract, mental retardation, liver disorders. Rubella or German measles is a contagious viral infection caused by the rubella virus. On exposure to the rubella virus, a person develops pinkish red rashes, mild fever, swollen lymph nodes, runny nose, headache and joint pain. Rubella is a droplet infection. Two antibodies whose detection is vital.

Introduction. In India, rubella is a common cause of febrile illness with rash among children. Postnatally acquired rubella infections are mild in nature and are seldom associated with complications [].However, the public health importance of rubella is due to teratogenic effects of rubella infection occurring in pregnant women [].Infections just before conception or during the first trimester. Rubella virus typically causes only a mild febrile illness with a rash. In childhood the infection is usually trivial, but in a pregnant woman infected during the first trimester serious sequelae. Rubella is a highly contagious disease that is caused by a virus. It occurs mainly in winter and spring. Rubella is still common in many countries. However, the risk of getting rubella in Canada is very low. Rubella is usually benign. However, it can cause complications, especially for pregnant women. For example, rubella can cause miscarriage. Rubella, also called German measles, is a highly contagious disease caused by the rubella virus that generally causes mild rashes and fever. However, in pregnant women, rubella infections can lead to developmental defects in their fetuses. Plotkin and his collaborators weakened a strain of rubella, called RA 27/3, by growing the virus in WI-38.

Measles causes a characteristic erythematous and maculopapular rash with a similar distribution to rubella. However, both the rash and accompanying symptoms of viremia (malaise, fever, loss of appetite, cough, rhinorrhoea, and conjunctivitis) tend to be more severe than in rubella, particularly in children Rubella is a viral illness that commonly causes fever and a skin rash. It mostly affects school-age children and is usually a mild disease. However if rubella occurs during pregnancy, it can have severe harmful effects for an unborn baby. It can also lead to miscarriage Rubella, also know as German measles, is a mild disease caused by togavirus. Transmission is through direct contact with an infected person or droplet spread. Rubella can cause serious.

This video is unavailable. Watch Queue Queue. Watch Queue Queu The measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine contains a live, attenuated measles virus, and there have been claims that the vaccine is a cause of autism in young children. This study included all. Rubella is caused by the rubella virus. Rubella is sometimes called German measles, but it is not the same disease as measles. Rubella is usually a mild illness, with a fever, rash and swollen lymph glands. However, if contracted by pregnant women during the first 10 weeks of pregnancy, the disease can cause life-long problems for babies

The virus that causes rubella lives in the nose and throat and is sprayed into the air when an infected person sneezes, coughs or talks. Other people nearby can then inhale the virus. Touching tissues or sharing a cup used by someone with rubella also spreads the virus. People with rubella can spread the disease starting 7 days before until 7. Rubella is a viral infection that is usually mild and marked by fever and rash that last about 2 to 3 days. The infection usually resolves without treatment. However, if a pregnant woman contracts it for the first time during the first three months of her pregnancy, rubella can cause serious complications in the developing baby (fetus) Measles is also known as rubeola, not to be confused with rubella (German measles). Worldwide, measles is the fifth highest cause of illness and death in children.Measles is rare in Australia because of the widespread use of the measles vaccine Today, measles still causes more than 100,000 deaths globally each year. Measles can be prevented with a vaccine that is both highly effective and safe. Each complication and death related to measles is a preventable tragedy that could have been avoided through vaccination, the authors write

Rubella virus - Wikipedi

Cause: Rubella virus, a togavirus, genus Rubivirus. Illness and treatment: Acquired rubella is usually mild with fever and a maculopapular rash moving down from the face to include the entire body. Up to 50% of infections are inapparent. Older children and adults may have malaise, lymph node swelling, and upper respiratory symptoms before the rash What is rubella? Rubella is a viral respiratory disease that's relatively mild and somewhat contagious. Because most children in the United States get the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine, it's now extremely rare here.But before the first rubella vaccine came along in 1969, the disease often spread among preschool and elementary-school children, especially in the late winter and early. Rubella (German Measles) Rubella is a viral disease that causes fever, rash and swollen glands. Illness is usually mild, but if a woman gets rubella during pregnancy, it can cause miscarriage, stillbirth or birth defects in her unborn child

Like the novel coronavirus responsible for the current pandemic, the virus that causes rubella usually produced mild disease—in the case of rubella, typically fever and a rash. In about one. Rubella spreads when an infected person coughs or sneezes. Also, if a woman is infected with rubella while she is pregnant, she can pass the virus to her developing baby and cause serious harm. An infected person is most contagious when he/she has a rash. However, rubella can spread up to 7 days before to 7 days after the rash appears Togavirus causes congenital rubella, whatever that is. Togavirus veroorzaakt congenitale rubella , wat dat dan ook is. Use this code for viral infections involving multiple organ systems (e.g. measles, mumps, rubella , varicella, erythema infectiosum) Rubella. Rubella is also called a German measles or a three day measles. Rubella is acute childhood infection which is mild in nature end of short duration. If this infection is occur in the early stage of pregnancy then result in a serious congenital defect or death of the fetus Rubella (or German measles) is an infectious disease caused by a virus. It is not normally serious, and some people do not even show any symptoms. However, the disease is very dangerous for pregnant women, because it can cause miscarriage or serious abnormalities in the unborn baby

The measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine does not increase the risk of autism and does not trigger autism in children who are at risk, according to a new study of over 650,000 children The measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine has been theorized to provide protection against COVID-19. In a new study published in mBio, an open-access journal of the American Society for Microbiology.

Rash and Swollen Lymph Nodes: Causes, Photos, and TreatmentOther imagesGerman Measles - Pictures, Symptoms, Causes, TreatmentVaccines are Deadly and Don’t Work | Integrating Dark andEncephalitis
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